What ingredients are used in the vaccines?

The ingredients used in the mRNA vaccines developed by Pfizer and Moderna are simple. They contain mRNA, as well as lipids to ensure safe delivery of the mRNA that will initiate an immune response.

Ingredients of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine include: recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, citric acid monohydrate, trisodium citrate dihydrate, ethanol, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD), polysorbate-80, sodium chloride.

Although FDA approved adjuvants (aluminum salts) and preservatives (ethlymercury) have a history of safe use in vaccines, they were not used by Pfizer, Moderna or Janssen.

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1. Are the available COVID-19 vaccines safe and effective?
2. Is it safe to get my child vaccinated?
3. Is it safe to get vaccinated if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
4. How was the vaccine developed so quickly?
5. What ingredients are used in the vaccines?
6. What are the possible side effects of a COVID-19 vaccine?
7. Who is NOT recommended for each vaccine?
8. Can I get COVID-19 from the vaccine?
9. Is Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine safe?
10. Does the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccine require special precautions?